Effekter av kvinnlig rösträtt

I dag är det 100 år sedan kvinnor fick rösträtt i kommunalval Sverige. Vad kan kvinnlig rösträtt och kvinnligt röstande ha för ekonomisk-politiska konsekvenser? Några studier:

  • ”Using historical data from six Western European countries for the period 1869–1960, we provide evidence that social spending out of GDP increased by 0.6–1.2% in the short-run as a consequence of women’s suffrage, while the long-run effect is three to eight times larger.” (Källa.)
  • ”[W]omen’s suffrage increases the size of government only in non-catholic countries.” (Källa.)
  • ”Analysing all federal votes held between 1981 and 2003 [in Switzerland], we show that there are large gender gaps in the areas of health, environmental protection, defence spending and welfare policy. The gender gaps typically persist even conditional on socio-economic characteristics. We also find that female policy-makers have a substantial effect on the composition of public spending, but a small effect on the overall size of government.” (Källa.)
  • ”We find that women’s political empowerment was influential for educational attainment. We show that suffrage led to large gains for children from economically disadvantaged backgrounds, which we proxy for with historical levels of education by state and race.  … We find that suffrage increased income alongside education gains. … We conclude by mapping these long-term effects to the contemporaneous impacts of these laws on education spending and childhood health.” (Källa.)
  • ”This paper presents new evidence on how suffrage rights for American women helped children to benefit from the scientific breakthroughs of the bacteriological revolution. Consistent with standard models of electoral competition, suffrage laws were followed by immediate shifts in legislative behavior and large, sudden increases in local public health spending. This growth in public health spending fueled large-scale door-to-door hygiene campaigns, and child mortality declined by 8–15% (or 20,000 annual child deaths nationwide) …” (Källa.)
  • ”This paper examines the relationship between the granting of voting rights to women and protectionism during the interwar years. Public opinion survey evidence from the period indicates that women were more likely than men to hold protectionist attitudes, while panel data analysis of average tariff rates shows that when women were entitled to vote tariffs were, on average, higher.” (Källa.)
  • ”In a difference‐in‐differences regression for Swiss cantonal panel data, we find that the inclusion of women in the electorate has reduced deficits by a statistically significant amount.” (Källa.)

Mitt intryck av litteraturen är att kvinnliga väljare har ändrat politikens inriktning i många länder mot mer av vad man i vid mening kan kalla socialpolitik (och mot mer protektionism). Det verkar dock mindre klart att statens storlek som andel av BNP har så mycket med kvinnligt röstande att skaffa; och om något verkar mer av budgetbalans uppnås när kvinnor deltar i röstandet.