Förluster ogillas mer än vinster gillas

lossaversionBeteendeekonomer har upptäckt att människor i regel är förlustaverta:

One of behavioral economics’ seminal insights is that people value gains differently than losses. Most of us are loss averse, which means we prefer to avoid a loss more than we enjoy the satisfaction of a seemingly equivalent gain (ie. losing $100 hurts more than winning $100 despite the identical value of the money involved). 

Detta insåg dock redan Adam Smith. I The Theory of Moral Sentiments (VI.I.7) skriver han:

We suffer more, it has already been observed, when we fall from a better to a worse situation, than we ever enjoy when we rise from a worse to a better. Security, therefore, is the first and the principal object of prudence. It is averse to expose our health, our fortune, our rank, or reputation, to any sort of hazard. It is rather cautious than enterprising, and more anxious to preserve the advantages which we already possess, than forward to prompt us to the acquisition of still greater advantages.

Som Predikaren 1:9 uttrycker det:

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