Välfärd istället för mänskliga rättigheter

Professor Eric Posner

Professor Eric Posner

Jag ställer mig avvisande till begreppet mänskliga rättigheter (se här, här och här). Nu finner jag att juristprofessorn vid University of Chicago Eric Posner också gör det. I ”Human Welfare, Not Human Rights” skriver han:

”Human rights treaties play an important role in international relations but they lack a foundation in moral philosophy and doubts have been raised about their effectiveness for constraining states. Drawing on ideas from the literature on economic development, this paper argues that international concern should be focused on human welfare rather than on human rights. A focus on welfare has three advantages. First, the proposition that governments should advance the welfare of their populations enjoys broader international and philosophical support than do the various rights that are incorporated in the human rights treaties. Second, the human rights treaties are both too rigid and too vague—they do not allow governments to adopt reasonable policies that advance welfare at the expense of rights, and they do not set forth rules governing how states may trade off rights. A welfare treaty could provide guidance by supplying a maximand along with verifiable measures of compliance. Third, the human rights regime and international development policy work at cross-purposes. Development policy favors the poorest states, while the human rights regime condemns the states with the worst governments: unfortunately, the poorest states usually have the worst governments.”

Jag delar som sagt Posners skepsis mot ”mänskliga rättigheter” men är inte särskilt förtjust i hans alternativ. Att tänka sig att internationella avtal ska kunna resultera i miniminivåer på mänsklig välfärd ser jag som osannolikt — och jag befarar mer interventionism och tendenser att skapa ineffektiva och naiva internationella organisationer som ska övervaka och administera systemet. Men jag välkomnar problematiseringar av den nuvarande inriktningen, av detta och andra slag.